-- JeffWebb - 03 Sep 2008

Introduction

Edmundsiops Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty? [offsite pdf] currently has two described species: E. instigatus Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty? [offsite pdf] and E. hickmani Suter [offsite pdf]. Many undescribed species are known, however, and a preliminary key for the larvae was provided by Suter, 1997 ( [offsite pdf]) as Genus 2, Genus 4 and Genus 5. Larvae are widespread throughout eastern Australia and occur in a variety of stream types and display varying tolerances to impacts.

The BaetidaePhylogeny is showing that Edmundsiops is paraphyletic and includes Offadens Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty? (=Genus1 sensu Suter 1997). As such, the Edmundsiops revision has been expanded to include the species of Offadens.Currently, 27 species are recognized.

Goals

  • name and describe the species using a combination of morphological and molecular methods
  • hypothesize relationships

Preliminary Results

Morphologically, there are two main species groups in Edmundsiops: the Offadens type with an unforked prostheca and a protuberance on the right mandible, and the Edmundsiops type with a forked prostheca and no protuberance on the right mandible. Edmundsiops tend to have more numerous and longer setae on the dorsal margin of the femora compared to Offadens, but this depends largely on the habitat in which the larvae is found. There are no differences between the adults of the two species groups.

List of Species

"Edmundsiops"

  • E. hickmani complex
    • at least seven species based on mitochondrial DNA and nuclear data
    • most geographically isolated
    • sympatric species do not share nuclear genotypes
    • no consistant morphological differences between species, but there are some ecological differences
    • Diagnostic Characters:
      • row of long robust setae on tibiae
      • right prostheca forked
    • Cryptic species:
    • sp "high altitude"
      • in Victorian, NSW, ACT alps, usually above 800m
      • can occur low (down to 350m) but only in clean, fast flowing streams
      • can by sympatric with sp "low altitude"
    • sp "low altitude"
      • most widespread species of hickmani complex (NSW south of Hunter Valley, ACT, foothills of alps, Otways, and Grampians)
      • usually found below 800m, but can occur higher in slower, warmer streams
      • usually in larger streams than sp "high altitude"
    • sp Otways
      • occurs in Grampians and Otways in Victoria
      • sympatric in some localities with sp "low altitude"
    • sp Gippsland
      • occurs in southern Victoria
    • sp hickmani
      • only species of hickmani complex in Tasmania
    • sp NNSW
      • occurs north of Hunter Valley in NSW
    • sp Manning River
      • so far only known from the upper Manning River in NSW (part of the Barrington Tops area)

  • E. instigatus Lugo-Ortiz McCafferty?

    • =Genus2 spMV2 sensu Suter (1997)
    • Diagnostic Characters:
      • absence of paired subapical setae on forefemora
      • absence of distinct subapical seta on tibiae
      • row of short 'cloven' setae on tibiae
      • right prostheca forked
      • fresh specimens with pale band across mesothoracic wing pads

  • E. spMV1
    • mostly from small mountain streams in Victoria
    • Stages Known: larvae, males, females
    • Diagnostic Characters:
      • right prostheca forked
      • abdominal terga nearly uniformly brown
      • absence of paired subapical setae on forefemora
      • apex of femora with long, sharp robust setae
      • labial palp with oblique angle on inner margin between segments 2 and 3

  • E. spMV6
    • most widespread species
    • found in variety of habitats, including lowland streams
    • most tolerant of organic pollution and siltation
    • Stages Known: larvae, males, females
    • Diagnostic Characters:
      • right prostheca forked
      • femora with distinct paired subapical setae
      • tibiae with distinct subapical seta
      • labial palp with with poorly developed thumb on second segment
      • dorsal margin of femora with dense row of long setae, all approximately of the same size
  • E. sp6TAS
    • morphologically same as sp MV6 but highly highly divergent based on mtDNA
    • Stages Known: larvae

  • E. spMV9
    • only known from a small number of localities from the Great Dividing Range in the Victorian and New South Wale and the Otways
    • Stages Known: larvae, females
    • Diagnostic Characters:
      • right prostheca forked
      • femora with distinct paired subapical setae
      • labial palp with distinctly enlarged 'thumb' on second segment
      • abdominal mostly pale, with some dark markings
      • dorsal margin of femora with sparse long robust setae (usually with <10) and with short robust setae interspersed
      • tarsal claw straighter and with more denticles than most other Edmundsiops

  • E. sp G5sp2
    • equivalent to Suter's (1997) Genus 5 sp2
    • occurs north of Brisbane
    • Stages Known: larvae, females
    • Diagnostic Characters:
      • right prostheca forked
      • absence of paired subapical setae on forefemora (may be present on other legs)
      • apex of femora with long robust setae
      • tibiae with conspicuous row of dense fine setae
      • abdominal terga with reddish brown transverse stripe on posterior margin, wider medially
  • E. sp G4sp1
    • equivalent to Suter's Genus 4 sp1
    • northern QLD
    • Stages Known: larvae
    • Diagnostic Characters:
      • body uniformaly brown except tergum 10 which is bright white
      • we only have one specimen and so are unsure of character variability
      • setae on legs and claws similar to those of E. sp9
      • labial palp without large thumb
      • right prostheca forked
  • E. sp15
    • Stages Known: larvae
    • Diagnostic Characters:
      • reduced number of setae on dorsal margin of femora
      • no subapical seta on claws
      • forked right prostheca
      • subapical setae present on femora and tibiae

Offadens

  • O. sobrinus Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty?
    • =Genus1 sp7 Suter 1997 (but does have a notch in the labrum)
    • Stages Known: larvae
    • lacks robust setae on the outer margin of the tibiae
    • mostly found in northern NSW
  • E. sp 14
    • common in northern Queensland
    • possibly a complex of 3 species
    • structures of mouthparts indicates close relationship with E. sp Armidale1 and Offadens
    • sequence data doesn't confidently place this species into either Offadens or Edmundsiops
    • likely equivalent to Suter's (1997) Genus 5 sp1
    • Stages Known: larvae, males, females
    • Diagnostic Characters:
      • right prostheca unforked
      • inner margin of glossae without robust setae on basal half
      • paired subapical setae on femora and single subapical seta on tibiae conspicuously longer than in E. sp Armidale1
      • area between incisor and molar area with very slight hump
    • Cryptic Species:
      • sp14.1
      • sp14.2
      • sp14.3
  • E. sp Armidale 1
    • =E sp13 in the BaetidaePhylogeny
    • known from Queensland and New South Wales
    • northern Queensland specimens nearly uniformly brown; southern QLD and NSW specimens usually with contrastingly coloured terga
    • Armidale1 from NSW and sp13 from northern QLD have highly similar COI sequences
    • Diagnostic Characters:
      • right prostheca unforked
      • right mandible with a distinct hump between molar area and incisors
      • inner margin of glossae with setae along entire length
  • O. soror (Ulmer)
    • =Genus1 sp WA1
    • Stages Known: larvae, males
    • the only running water species of baetid in SW WA
  • O. confluens
    • =Genus1 spMV5
    • Stages Known: larvae, males, females
    • found mostly in lowland streams
    • gills vary in length
  • O. sp ARR1
    • occurs in NT and northern QLD
    • all stages with paired red spots on abdominal terga
    • Stages Known: larvae, males, females
  • O. frater (Tillyard)
    • =Genus1 sp8 sensu Suter 1997
    • occurs only in Tasmania
    • Stages Known: larvae, males, females
  • O. spSnowy
    • is the mainland 'frater'
    • occurs mostly in aquatic vegetation
    • adults with distinctive dark red spot laterally on abdominal tergum 2
    • fresh material with series of pairs of red spot on the abominal terga
    • Stages Known: larvae, males, females
  • O. spRingarooma
    • Tasmania
    • Stages Known: females
  • O. spWA2
    • occurs in northern WA
    • usually has long robust setae on the tibiae