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Rhizophora mucronata

Rhizophora mucronata Propagules.jpg
Rhizophora mucronata propagule at Iriomote Is. Okinawa, Japan

Common Names

Upriver Stilt Mangrove ([1]), Black Mangrove, Loop Root Mangrove, Red Mangrove



Name ref

Rhizophora mucronata Lam.

Origin of Name

Rhizo-phora means 'root bearing' in Greek, referring to the stilt roots characteristic of the genus.

mucronata means 'with a short, sharp point' in Latin, referring to the pointed tip of the leaf apices ([1]).


Botanical Description


Distributed from East Africa and India, throughout Asia, to the western Pacific and Northern Australia. In Australia it is limited to Queensland where it is found in estuaries from the Jardine River on Cape York Peninsula, south to Deluge Inlet, Hinchinbrook Channel ([1]).

Localities (not complete):



In Australia, flowers from October to December, with propagule maturation from January to March ([1]).

Biological Interactions
Group Taxon
  22 taxa
Vascular Plants Acrostichum speciosum
Vascular Plants Acanthus ilicifolius
Vascular Plants Aegiceras corniculatum
Vascular Plants Amyema mackayensis
Vascular Plants Avicennia marina
Vascular Plants Bruguiera gymnorhiza
Vascular Plants Bruguiera parviflora
Vascular Plants Bruguiera sexangula
Vascular Plants Ceriops tagal
Vascular Plants Ceriops pseudodecandra
Vascular Plants Cynometra iripa
Vascular Plants Excoecaria agallocha
Vascular Plants Heritiera littoralis
Vascular Plants Hibiscus_tiliaceus
Vascular Plants Nypa fruticans
Vascular Plants Rhizophora apiculata
Vascular Plants Rhizophora X lamarckii
Vascular Plants Rhizophora stylosa
Vascular Plants Sonneratia alba
Vascular Plants Sonneratia caseolaris
Vascular Plants Xylocarpus granatum
Vascular Plants Xylocarpus moluccensis


Similar Species

Mangrove Watch: http://www.mangrovewatch.org.au/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=39&Itemid=300175

Encyclopedia of Life: http://www.eol.org/pages/482514

A Field Guide to Kenyan Mangroves: http://www.madeinnys.com/mangrove/r_mucronata.htm

Mangrove and wetland wildlife at Sungei Buloh Nature Park: http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/plants/rhizophora%20mucronata.htm

Rhizophora mucronata habit.jpg
Rhizophora mucronata habit, Singapore. Photo: John Yong

Rhizophora mucronata propagule.jpg
Rhizophora mucronata propagule, Singapore. Photo: John Yong

Rhizophora mucronata propagule2.jpg
Rhizophora mucronata propagule, Singapore. Photo: John Yong

Rhizophora comparison propagule.jpg
Rhizophora mucronata (longest propagule) is in the middle. For comparison, Rhizophora apiculata (Bottom left) and Rhizophora stylosa (on the right). Singapore. Photo: John Yong


  1. Duke, N.C. (2006). Australia's Mangroves. The authoritative guide to Australia's mangrove plants. University of Queensland, Brisbane. (more)
  2. Bunt, J.S. (1982b). Mangrove Transect Data from Northern Queensland. Coastal Studies Series, Australian Institute of Marine Science AIMS-CS-82-1. Australian Institute of Marine Science. 41 p. Available online: http://data.aims.gov.au/extpubs/attachmentDownload?docID=2326 (more)
  3. Bunt, J.S. (1997). The Mangrove Floral and Vegetational Diversity of Hinchinbrook Island and the Adjacent Coast. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville. Available online: http://data.aims.gov.au/extpubs/attachmentDownload?docID=3018 (more)

Biological Interactions
Relation Taxon GroupSorted ascending
InfectedBy Dactylospora_haliotrepha Fungi
OccursWith Acanthus_ilicifolius Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Acrostichum_speciosum Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Aegiceras_corniculatum Vascular_Plants
PreyOf Amyema_mackayensis Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Avicennia_marina Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Bruguiera_gymnorhiza Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Bruguiera_parviflora Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Bruguiera_sexangula Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Ceriops_pseudodecandra Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Ceriops_tagal Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Cynometra_iripa Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Excoecaria_agallocha Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Heritiera_littoralis Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Hibiscus_tiliaceus Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Nypa_fruticans Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Rhizophora_X_lamarckii Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Rhizophora_apiculata Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Rhizophora_stylosa Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Sonneratia_X_urama Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Sonneratia_alba Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Sonneratia_caseolaris Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Xylocarpus_granatum Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Xylocarpus_moluccensis Vascular_Plants