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Common Names

Orange Mangroves ([1]).



Name Reference

Bruguiera Lam.

Origin of Name

Named in honour of the French biologist and explorer, Jean-Guillaume Bruguiére (1750-1798), famous for his naming of molluscs, marine life and plants ([1]).


5 species & 1 hybrid in Australia.

Genus Feature - Flowers characterised by having 8-16, pointed calyx lobes, and orange petals ([1]).


Bruguiera Lam. (1791) is an Indo-West Pacific genus within the small pantropic family Rhizophoraceae. Bruguiera are distinguished by calyces with 8-16, lanceolate, pointed lobes, 16-32 stamens, explosive pollen release, and distinctly viviparous propagule. The genus consists of two imperfect groupings of species, including: 4 species with large, mostly solitary flowers, namely B. exaristata, B. gymnorhiza, B. X rhynchopetala and B. sexangula; and, 3 species with 2-5 small flowers in each inflorescence, namely B. cylindrica, B. hainesii C.G.Rogers and B. parviflora. The hybrid is here described as B. X rhynchopetala (= B. gymnorhiza X B. sexangula) from stands in China and North-eastern Australia. All taxa except B. hainesii occur in Australia ([1]).


Bruguiera are an Indo-West Pacific genus present in most mangrove stands from the East Coast of Africa through Asia and Indonesia, the Philippines, to the western Pacific Islands and northern Australia. Bruguiera gymnorhiza is considered one of the most broadly distributed by longitude of any mangrove species. Bruguiera sexangula was introduced to the Hawaiian Islands around 1927 ([1]).

Key to Bruguiera species of Australia

Five Bruguiera species and one hybrid are believed to occur in mangroves of Australia. They are distinguished by the number of buds in inflorescences, bud size, ribbing on calyces, numbers of calyces, shape of petal lobes, and presence of spines and bristles on petals.

1. Flowers multiple (2-5), small; petal spine exceeds lobes 2.
1*. Flowers solitary, large; petal spine shorter than lobes or absent 3.
2. Fruit calyx ribbed, lobes adpressed (1/4-1/5 length of calyx Bruguiera parviflora
2*. Fruit calyx smooth, lobes reflexed (1/2 length of calyx) Bruguiera cylindrica
3. Petal spine absent or minute Bruguiera exaristata
3*. Petal spine shorter than lobes 4.
4. Petal bristles absent or minute Bruguiera sexangula
4*. Petal bristles 1-3 5.
5. Petal bristles 1-2, less than 2 mm Bruguiera X rhynchopetala
5*. Petal bristles 3, greater than 2 mm Bruguiera gymnorhiza

-- NormDuke and EmmaClifton - 2011-11-25


  1. Duke, N. (2011). Mangroves of Australia. Manuscript. Vers.: 27 Sept 2011. (more)

Biological Interactions
Relation Taxon GroupSorted ascending
OccursWith Ardea_sumatrana Birds
OccursWith Cracticus_quoyi Birds
OccursWith Gerygone_magnirostris Birds
OccursWith,InhabitedBy Gerygone_tenebrosa Birds
InhabitedBy Myzomela_erythrocephala Birds
InhabitedBy Rhipidura_dryas Birds
InhabitedBy Apion Coleoptera
HasEpiphyte Caloplaca_bassiae Lichens
HasEpiphyte Collema_implicatum Lichens
HasEpiphyte Dirinaria_confluens Lichens
HasEpiphyte Dirinaria_purpurascens Lichens
HasEpiphyte Dirinaria_subconfluens Lichens
HasEpiphyte Graphis_streimannii Lichens
HasEpiphyte Lecanora_helva Lichens
HasEpiphyte Letrouitia_leprolytoides Lichens
HasEpiphyte Leucodecton_occultatum Lichens
HasEpiphyte Ocellularia_confluens Lichens
HasEpiphyte Pannaria_elatior Lichens
HasEpiphyte Parmotrema_parahypotropum Lichens
HasEpiphyte Parmotrema_reticulatum Lichens
HasEpiphyte Pertusaria_clarkeana Lichens
HasEpiphyte Pertusaria_commutata Lichens
HasEpiphyte Pertusaria_hartmanii Lichens
HasEpiphyte Pertusaria_hermaka Lichens
HasEpiphyte Pertusaria_irregularis Lichens
HasEpiphyte Pertusaria_leioplacella Lichens
HasEpiphyte Pertusaria_pertusella Lichens
HasEpiphyte Physcia_sorediosa Lichens
HasEpiphyte Pyxine_convexior Lichens
HasEpiphyte Pyxine_keralensis Lichens
HasEpiphyte Pyxine_retirugella Lichens
HasEpiphyte Ramalina_inflata_perpusilla Lichens
HasEpiphyte Ramalina_subfraxinea_nortstictica Lichens
HasEpiphyte Tephromela_alectoronica Lichens
HasEpiphyte Usnea_dasaea Lichens
OccursWith Ceriops_pseudodecandra Vascular_Plants