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Avicennia marina

051 3.jpg
Avicennia marina trunks and pnematophores, St Kilda Beach near Adelaide, SA
Image: M. Fagg, ? ANBG

Avicennia marina leaf - front.jpg
Shiny green upper leaf surface
Image: Peripitus

Avicennia marina leaf underside.jpg
Finely pubescent (hairy) leaf undersurface
Image: Peripitus

Common Names

Grey and White Mangroves [1]

Family

Acanthaceae

Name Reference

Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh.

Origin of Name

Named in honour of the famous Arabian physician and scientist, abu-Ali al-Husayn ibn-Sina, known as Avicenna (980-1037) - his Qanun remained the standard medical textbook on plants for 500 years after his death. ‘Marina’ means of the sea (in Latin), and refers to the coastal habit of this species ([2]).

Summary

avicennia marina var resinifera fruit.JPG
Fruits on Avicennia marina subsp. australasica at the intersection of Port River and Westlakes, Port Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia.
Image: Peripitus

Avicennia marina, the pioneer of mangrove species, is possibly the most widely distributed of all mangroves, ranging widely across the Indo-West Pacific. Shrubby tree to tree growing on deep sandy mud, sea face. There are unique cold tolerant populations recognised as genetic variants restricted to southern Australia and New Zealand. There are also known to be a number of subspecies in several locations. Where subspecies overlap, they express no inhibition to genetic mixing.Three subspecies are recognised in Australia.

Species Feature - small flowers and pointed leaves ([2]).

Description

Avicennia marina is a tree or shrub growing to 25 m high with a widely variable shape. It has a simple trunk base, although occasionally possesses low aerial and prop roots. Above ground breathing roots (pnematophores) are pencil-like, 20 - 30 cm long and 5 - 10 mm wide.

Leaves are simple, opposite, ovate-elliptic to narrowly lanceolate in shape, 4 - 16 cm long and 1 - 5 cm wide with a pointed apex. The petiole is 3-23 mm long. Leaf under surfaces are silvery-grey and finely pubescent (hairy), while the upper surface is shiny green.

The inflorescence (flower cluster) is terminal or subterminal axillery. Flowers are small, orange, sweetly scented, 4-8 mm long, with 5 calyx lobes and usually 4 petals and stamens.

The fruits are pale green, slightly furry, compressed obovoid (egg-shaped) pods, 14-31 mm long and 11-27 mm wide with a persisting calyx. The fruits are crypto-viviparous and contain one, rarely two, propagules ([3], [1]).

Botanical Description

GROWTH FORM

Tree or shrub to 25 m, spreading, widely variable; bark white smooth flaky, or brown fissured pustular with longitudinal fissures; stem base simple, occasional low-placed aerial and prop roots; roots pencil-like pneumatophores, 20-30 cm L, 5-10 mm W.

FOLIAGE

Leaves opposite, simple, ovate-elliptic to narrowly lanceolate, 43-164 mm L, 12-49 mm W, apex variably pointed, upper surface shiny green, under-surface dull pale finely pubescent; petiole 3-23 mm L, glabrous above, often pubescent below.

REPRODUCTIVE PARTS

Inflorescence terminal or subterminal axillary, tightly capitate, 2-5 bud pairs, 10-30 mm L; flower actinomorphic, sweetly scented, 4-8 mm L; bract triangular or ovate, edge ciliate, sometimes foliaceous; bracteoles 2, ovate, edges ciliate; calyx lobes 5, ovate, 3-6 mm L, edge ciliate, outer surface fully or partly pubescent; corolla orange, 3-7 mm W, lobes mostly 4, revolute, reflexed, mostly equal, 1-3 mm L, apices rounded, outer surface mostly pubescent, inner surface dull glabrous; stamens 4 mostly, alternate with corolla lobes, ~0.5 mm L, anthers ~1 mm L; style short, glabrous, stigma below anthers or barely exserted; ovary conical, upper portion densely tomentose; fruit pod enclosing 1 propagule, rarely two, compressed ovoid, 14-31 mm L, 11-27 mm W, cryptoviviparous, persistent stylar beak ~1 mm L; pericarp fleshy, outer surface, puberulent, pale grey green; calyx persistent, 3-7 mm L.

DISPERSAL PROPAGULE

Propagule with 4 cotyledons, green, rounded, fleshy; radicle ~10 mm L, mostly glabrous with short densely hairy collar ~2 mm W, distal tip blunt, glabrous; buoyant with pericarp, neutral to negative without.

([1]).

Distribution

Avicennia marina.jpeg
Distribution of Avicennia marina in Australia.
Image: Australia's Virtual Herbarium, 2010

Avicennia marina is distributed from East Africa and the Arabian Gulf, throughout Asia to China and Japan, to the south-western Pacific, New Zealand and Australia. In Australia, it occurs in virtually all mainland estuaries and embayments with southern-most occurrences in the west at Leschenault Inlet, Bunbury, Western Australia (33° 16' S, 115° 42’ E), and in the east at Corner Inlet, Victoria (38° 45' S, 146° 29’ E). The latter is the highest latitude occurrence of mangroves in the world ([2]).

Localities (not complete):

Habitat

Avicennia marina grows in a wide range of substrates, from reef flats, to sandy or rocky embayments and fine mud flats ([1]).

High to low intertidal, downstream-intermediate estuarine position ([2]).

Biology

Flowering and fruit maturation varies considerably with latitude. Phenological events are initiated by daylength and governed by temperature. Flowering and fruiting occurs progressively later in higher latitude sites. Around 10° S, flowering occurs chiefly in November and December, and propagules mature mainly in March and April, while in sites around 38° S, flowering occurs chiefly in May and June, and propagules mature in January and February ([2]).

Avicennia marina has a wide tolerance of water temperatures and tidal inundation levels, varying from 1 - 10 m. It also tolerates a large range of moisture levels and salinity, varying form freshwater to hypersaline and can grow in a range of substrates. These characteristics give this species a distinct advantage, allowing it to establish on sites were other mangrove species can't survive ([1]).

The leaf under surface has glands that excrete excess salt ([3]).

Flowers are pollinated by bees and other insects ([3]).

Seeds germinate while still attached to the parent plant (cryptovivipary). Propagules are buoyant and quickly take root in unstable and frequently flooded substrates.

Propagules of Avicennia marina, Bruguiera exaristata, Bruguiera gymnorhiza, Ceriops tagal, Rhizophora apiculata and Rhizophora stylosa have been observed as being at least partially consumed by grapsid crabs, primarily Metopograpsus latifrons, Metapograpsus thukarhar, Perisesarma messa (as Sesarma messa), Parasesarma moluccensis (as Sesarma moluccensis) and Neosarmatium trispinosum (as N. smithi) ([10]).

Propagule predation influences the zonal distribution of A. marina. Although predation was very high in all forest types in which A. marina occurs, it was highest in the mid-tidal regions. Although A. marina propagules are dispersed into the mid-intertidal forests at Missionary Bay, Hinchinbrook Island, Queensland, it is virtually absent from that zone. Predation on its propagules appears to be the cause of that absence ([10]).

Fruit of Avicennia is eaten by ants (Polyrhachis sp), often along the dorsal suture, which may hasten the unfolding of cotyledons ([22]). Larvae of the mangrove fruit fly (Euphranta marina) and the mangrove plume moth (Cenoloba obliteralis) consume the cotyledons of the fruit, but not their embryonic axes. Damage to the cotyledons of fruit while on the tree was obvious in abscised propagules and the cotyledons of seedlings, indicating that larvae within fruit continue to consume the cotyledons and develop while the propagule disperses and the seedling establishes. Experiments demonstrated that frugivory did not influence the establishment of seedlings, but consumption of cotyledons by larvae apparently reduces the energy reserves available for the initial growth of seedlings, influencing initial growth and survivorship. Thus, the early life history of plants may be impacted by conditions experienced by the propagules before they disperse from the parental plant. ([23]).

DSC 11953 3.jpg
Lagoon edge inland from Mimosa Rocks National Park, near Bega, NSW.
Source:
Photo: M. Fagg, ? ANBG

Mangrove worms (Bactronophorus thoracites and Bankia australis) are found in the wood of this species and marine turtles are known to eat the fruit. Native bees make hives and possums can live in hollow trunks of this tree ([22]).

Ethnobotany

In the Northern Territory, the fruit can be roasted and eaten, the leaves and bark are used for medicinal purposes, such as marine stings and skin disorders and the leaves provide flavouring when cooked with mussels ([24]).

For further ethnobotanical information see [22].

Similar Species

Avicennia marina is distinguished from A. integra by its pointed leaf apices, smaller flowers and rounded fruit. A. integra has rounded leaf apices and a far more restricted distribution in the Top End of the Northern Territory ([1]).

Key to three Avicennia marina subspecies of Australia

They are distinguished by bark roughness, pubescence on calyx lobes, corolla width and position of anthers, along with leaf shape.
1. Calyx lobe fully pubscent, bark rough fissured Avicennia marina subsp. australasica
1*. Calyx lobe mostly pubscent with wide glabrous margin, bark smooth flaky 2
2. Corolla width 3-5 mm, style high, leaf shape lanceolate Avicennia marina subsp. eucalyptifolia
2*. Corolla width 5-6 mm, style low, leaf shape ovate-elliptic Avicennia marina subsp. marina
Distinctions between subspecies may not be helpful in zones of overlap as unrestricted mixing occurs ([1]).

Lovelock, C. (1994). Grey Mangrove ( Avicennia marina ). Field Guide to the Mangroves of Queensland. Australian Institute of Marine Science. Available online: http://www.aims.gov.au/pages/reflib/fg-mangroves/pages/fgm-5051.html

Department of Primary Industries, Victoria: http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/DPI/Vro/vrosite.nsf/pages/water_sss_white_mangrove

PlantNET, New South Wales Flora Online: http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/NSWfl.pl?page=nswfl&lvl=sp&name=Avicennia~marina

Thomas, G. (2008). Grey Mangrove (Avicennia marina). Capricorn Coast Flora http://www.mycapricorncoast.com/plants/greymangrove.html

FloraBase, the Western Australian Flora: http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/browse/profile/6828

-- EmmaClifton and NormDuke - 22 Dec 2010

052 3.jpg
St Kilda Beach near Adelaide, SA.
Image: M. Fagg, ? ANBG

050 3.jpg
Flowers, buds and leaves. Near Macksville, NSW.
Image: M. Fagg, ? ANBG

References

  1. Duke, N.C. (2006). Australia's Mangroves. The authoritative guide to Australia's mangrove plants. University of Queensland, Brisbane. (more)
  2. Duke, N. (2011). Mangroves of Australia. Manuscript. Vers.: 27 Sept 2011. (more)
  3. Lovelock, C. (1993). Field Guide to the Mangroves of Queensland. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, Qld. Available online: http://www.aims.gov.au/c/document_library/get_file?uuid=c9dcfc2e-6018-4302-8818-5ab3fe01f91f&groupId=30301 (more)
  4. Boto, K.G., Bunt, J.S. and Wellington, J.T. (1984). Variations in mangrove forest productivity in northern Australia and Papua New Guinea. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 19(3): 321-329. Available online: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WDV-4DV0KPV-CY&_user=2322062&_coverDate=09,2F30,2F1984&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=search&_origin=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_searchStrId=1655468263&_rerunOrigin=google&_acct=C000056895&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=2322062&md5=09397a6e327acf15899ed3f7ddc83a82&searchtype=a (more)
  5. West, R.J., Thorogood, C.A., Walford, T.R. and Williams, R. J. (1984). Mangrove distribution in New South Wales. Wetlands (Australia) 4: 2–6. Available online: http://ojs.library.unsw.edu.au/index.php/wetlands/article/viewFile/128/141 (more)
  6. Bunt, J.S. (1982b). Mangrove Transect Data from Northern Queensland. Coastal Studies Series, Australian Institute of Marine Science AIMS-CS-82-1. Australian Institute of Marine Science. 41 p. Available online: http://data.aims.gov.au/extpubs/attachmentDownload?docID=2326 (more)
  7. Clarke, L.D and Hannon, N.J. (1967). The mangrove swamp and salt marsh communities of the Sydney district. I. Vegetation, soils and climate. J. Ecol. 55(3): 753-771. Available online: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2258423 (more)
  8. Clarke, L.D. and Hannon, N.J. (1969). The mangrove swamp and salt marsh communities of the Sydney district. II. The holocoenotic complex with particular reference to physiography. J. Ecol. 57(1): 213-234. Available online: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2258216 (more)
  9. Bridgewater, P.B. (1982). Mangrove vegetation of the southern and western Australian coastline. pp. 111-120 in: Clough, B.F. (ed.) Mangrove ecosystems in Australia : structure, function and management. Australian National University Press. 302 p. (more)
  10. Smith III, T.J. (1987). Seed predation in relation to tree dominance and distribution in mangrove forests. Ecology 68(2): 266-73. Available online: http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/1939257.pdf (more)
  11. Robertson, A.I., Giddins, R. and Smith, T.J. (1990). Seed predation by insects in tropical mangrove forests: extent and effects on seed viability and the growth of seedlings. Oecologia 83: 213-219. Available online: http://www.springerlink.com/content/h6567208r2v14176/fulltext.pdf (more)
  12. Nicholas, W.L., Goodchild, D.J. and Stewart, A. (1987). The mineral composition of intracellular inclusions in nematodes from thiobiotic mangrove mud-flats. Nematologica 33: 167-179. Available online: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=RedirectURL&_method=outwardLink&_partnerName=3&_origin=article&_zone=art_page&_targetURL=http,3A,2F,2Fdx.doi.org,2F10.1163,252F187529287X00308&_acct=C000056895&_version=1&_userid=2322062&md5=d5f9a8ce99714a4daca7fcab9527f8da (more)
  13. Bunt, J.S. (1997). The Mangrove Floral and Vegetational Diversity of Hinchinbrook Island and the Adjacent Coast. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville. Available online: http://data.aims.gov.au/extpubs/attachmentDownload?docID=3018 (more)
  14. Semeniuk, V. (1980). Mangrove zonation along an eroding coastline in King Sound, north-western Australia. Journal of Ecology 68: 789-812. Available online: (more)
  15. LIA (2010a). Complete List of Species. Lake Illawarra Authority. Land & Property Management Authority, NSW Government. Available at: http://www.lia.nsw.gov.au/the_lake/lake_life/complete_list_of_species [Accessed: October 2010] (more)
  16. Beale, J.P. and Zalucki, M.P. (1995). Status and Distribution of Acrodipsas illidgei (Waterhouse and Lyell) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) at Redland Bay, Southeastern Queensland, and a New Plant-association Record. J. Aust. Ent. Soc. 34: 163-168. Available online: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/119256997/PDFSTART (more)
  17. Boggon, T. (2006). A cautionary note: Temporal effects on the capture of mangrove crabs by pitfall traps. Wetlands (Australia) 23(2): 32-37. Available online: http://ojs.library.unsw.edu.au/index.php/wetlands/article/viewFile/46/71 (more)
  18. Camilleri, J.C. (1992). Leaf-litter processing by invertebrates in a mangrove forest in Queensland. Marine Biology 114: 139-145. Abstract available online: http://www.springerlink.com/content/q8r18461550v4pk6 (more)
  19. Department for Environment and Heritage, Government of South Australia (2000). Winninowie Conservation Park Management Plan. June, 2000. Available online: http://www.environment.sa.gov.au/files/22905603-0a8d-405a-925e-9e4f00b20dac/PARKS_PDFS_WINNINOWIE_MP.pdf (more)
  20. Thom, B.G., Wright, L.D. and Coleman, J.M. (1975). Mangrove ecology and deltaic-estuarine geomorphology: Cambridge Gulf-Ord River, Western Australia. J. Ecol. 63(1): 202-232. Available online: http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/2258851.pdf (more)
  21. Shine, R., Ellway, C.P. and Hegerl, E.J. (1973). A biological survey of the Tallebudgera Creek estuary. Operculum 3(5-6): 59-83. Available online: (more)
  22. Wightman, G. (2006). Mangroves of the Northern Territory, Australia: identification and traditional use. Northern Territory. Dept. of Natural Resources, Environment and the Arts, Palmerston. (more)
  23. Minchinton, T.E. and Dalby-Ball, M. (2001). Frugivory by insects on mangrove propagules: effects on the early life history of Avicennia marina. Oecologia 129: 243-252. Available online: http://www.springerlink.com/content/wx20tc4mpm8pwf5m/ (more)
  24. Wightman, G. (2006b). Mangrove Plant Identikit from north Australia's Top End. Greening Australia NT, Darwin. (more)

Biological Interactions
Relation Taxon GroupSorted ascending
InhabitedBy Crematogaster_sp1 Ants
InhabitedBy Acalolepta_holotephra Beetles
PreyOf Amarygmus Beetles
InhabitedBy Araecerus_bicristatus Beetles
InhabitedBy Aridaeus_thoracicus Beetles
InhabitedBy Didymocantha_obliqua Beetles
InhabitedBy Paradisterna_plumifera Beetles
InhabitedBy Prosoplus_bankii Beetles
InhabitedBy Rhytiphora_pulverulea Beetles
InhabitedBy Ceyx_pusilla Birds
OccursWith Rhipidura_phasiana Birds
InhabitedBy Todiramphus_chloris Birds
OccursWith Abracadabrella_elegans Chelicerates
OccursWith Lampona Chelicerates
OccursWith Rebilus Chelicerates
InhabitedBy Ceresium Coleoptera
InhabitedBy Leanobium Coleoptera
InhabitedBy Notiosomus Coleoptera
InhabitedBy Pseudobothrideres Coleoptera
InhabitedBy Pseudoplites Coleoptera
OccursWith Australoplax_tridentata Crustaceans
HasDetritivore Campecopea Crustaceans
HasDetritivore Clistocoeloma_merguiense Crustaceans
OccursWith Heloecius_cordiformis Crustaceans
OccursWith,HasDetritivore Ilyograpsus_paludicola Crustaceans
HasDetritivore Leptograpsus_variegatus Crustaceans
OccursWith Macrophthalmus_punctulatus Crustaceans
HasDetritivore Melita Crustaceans
HasDetritivore Metopograpsus_frontalis Crustaceans
OccursWith Mictyris_livingstonei Crustaceans
OccursWith Mictyris_longicarpus Crustaceans
HasDetritivore Orchestia Crustaceans
OccursWith Paragrapsus_gaimardii Crustaceans
HasDetritivore Paragrapsus_laevis Crustaceans
HasDetritivore Parasesarma_erythodactyla Crustaceans
OccursWith Pilumnus Crustaceans
HasDetritivore Pseudohelice_quadrata Crustaceans
HasDetritivore Ptyosphaera_alata Crustaceans
OccursWith Scylla_serrata Crustaceans
PreyOf Metopograpsus_latifrons Crustaceans
PreyOf Metopograpsus_thukuhar Crustaceans
PreyOf Perisesarma_messa Crustaceans
PreyOf Parasesarma_moluccensis Crustaceans
PreyOf Neosarmatium_trispinosum Crustaceans
PreyOf Euphranta_marina Diptera
InfectedBy Adomia_avicenniae Fungi
HasSaprotroph Antennospora_quadricornuta Fungi
HasSaprotroph Dactylospora_haliotrepha Fungi
InfectedBy Halosarpheia_abonnis Fungi
HasSaprotroph Halosarpheia_marina Fungi
InfectedBy Julella_avicenniae Fungi
InfectedBy Kallichroma_glabrum Fungi
HasSaprotroph Leptosphaeria_australiensis Fungi
InfectedBy Lignincola_laevis Fungi
HasSaprotroph Lulworthia_longispora Fungi
HasSaprotroph Neptunella_longirostris Fungi
InfectedBy Nia_vibrissa Fungi
HasSaprotroph Ophiobolus_australiensis Fungi
InfectedBy Phialophorophoma_littoralis Fungi
PreyOf Phytophthora_nicotianae Fungi
InfectedBy Swampomyces_armeniacus Fungi
HasSaprotroph Tunicatispora_australiensis Fungi
OccursWith Rhizoclonium Green_Algae
PreyOf Arunta_interclusa Hemiptera
InhabitedBy Polyrhachis Hymenoptera
InhabitedBy Polyrhachis_machaon Hymenoptera
InhabitedBy Tapinoma Hymenoptera
InhabitedBy Acrodipsas_illidgei Lepidoptera
PreyOf Cenoloba_obliteralis Lepidoptera
PreyOf Hypochrysops_apelles Lepidoptera
PreyOf Hypochrysops_epicurus Lepidoptera
HasEpiphyte Buellia_bahiana Lichens
HasEpiphyte Buellia_demutans Lichens
HasEpiphyte Bulbothrix_queenslandica Lichens
HasEpiphyte Caloplaca_bassiae Lichens
HasEpiphyte Caloplaca_filsonii Lichens
HasEpiphyte Collema_implicatum Lichens
HasEpiphyte Collema_leucocarpum Lichens
HasEpiphyte Cratiria_melanochlora Lichens
HasEpiphyte Dirinaria_aegialita Lichens
HasEpiphyte Dirinaria_applanata Lichens
HasEpiphyte Flavoparmelia_haysomii Lichens
HasEpiphyte Graphis_furcata Lichens
HasEpiphyte Graphis_mucronata Lichens
HasEpiphyte Haematomma_persoonii Lichens
HasEpiphyte Hyperphyscia_adglutinata Lichens
HasEpiphyte Jackelixia_elixii Lichens
HasEpiphyte Jackelixia_ligulata Lichens
HasEpiphyte Jackelixia_streimannii Lichens
HasEpiphyte Lecanora_elatinoides Lichens
HasEpiphyte Lecanora_flavopallida Lichens
HasEpiphyte Lecanora_helva Lichens
HasEpiphyte Ochrolechia_africana Lichens
HasEpiphyte Ochrolechia_gyrophorica Lichens
HasEpiphyte Pannaria_elixii Lichens
HasEpiphyte Parmelia_erumpens Lichens
HasEpiphyte Parmotrema_crinitum Lichens
HasEpiphyte Parmotrema_norsticticatum Lichens
HasEpiphyte Pertusaria_commutata Lichens
HasEpiphyte Pertusaria_melaleucoides Lichens
HasEpiphyte Pertusaria_porinella Lichens
HasEpiphyte Pertusaria_thiospoda Lichens
HasEpiphyte Pertusaria_undulata Lichens
HasEpiphyte Pyxine_subcinerea Lichens
HasEpiphyte Ramalina_australiensis Lichens
HasEpiphyte Ramalina_canariensis Lichens
HasEpiphyte Ramalina_celastri_celastri Lichens
HasEpiphyte Ramalina_confirmata Lichens
HasEpiphyte Ramalina_exiguella Lichens
HasEpiphyte Ramalina_fissa Lichens
HasEpiphyte Ramalina_glaucescens Lichens
HasEpiphyte Ramalina_inflata_australis Lichens
HasEpiphyte Ramalina_inflata_inflata Lichens
HasEpiphyte Ramalina_leiodea Lichens
HasEpiphyte Ramalina_pacifica Lichens
HasEpiphyte Ramalina_peruviana Lichens
HasEpiphyte Ramalina_tropica Lichens
HasEpiphyte Ramalina_unilateralis Lichens
HasEpiphyte Relicina_sydneyensis Lichens
HasEpiphyte Schismatomma_occultum Lichens
HasEpiphyte Usnea_dasaea Lichens
HasEpiphyte Acrolejeunea_aulacophora Liverworts
HasEpiphyte Cheilolejeunea_intertexta Liverworts
HasEpiphyte Frullania_subtropica Liverworts
HasEpiphyte Leptolejeunea_maculata Liverworts
HasEpiphyte Rinodina_australiensis [[Mangroves.][]]
OccursWith Bembicium_auratum Molluscs
OccursWith Cassidula_nucleus Molluscs
OccursWith Cassidula_zonata Molluscs
OccursWith Ophicardelus_ornatus Molluscs
OccursWith Ophicardelus_sulcatus Molluscs
OccursWith Phallomedusa_solida Molluscs
InfectedBy Bactronophorus_thoracites Molluscs_Bivalvia
InfectedBy Bankia_australis Molluscs_Bivalvia
InfectedBy Bankia_rochi Molluscs_Bivalvia
InfectedBy Dicyathifer_manni Molluscs_Bivalvia
InfectedBy Lyrodus_pedicellatus Molluscs_Bivalvia
OccursWith Saccostrea_glomerata Molluscs_Bivalvia
OccursWith Littoraria_scabra Molluscs_Gastropoda
OccursWith Pleuroloba_quoyi Molluscs_Gastropoda
HasEpiphyte Macromitrium_aurescens Mosses
OccursWith Sabatieria_wieseri Nematodes
OccursWith Sphaerolaimus_papillatus Nematodes
OccursWith Terschellingia_longicaudata Nematodes
HasDetritivore Capitella Polychaetes
OccursWith Acanthus_ilicifolius Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Acrostichum_speciosum Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Aegialitis_annulata Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Aegiceras_corniculatum Vascular_Plants
PreyOf Amyema_mackayensis Vascular_Plants
PreyOf Amyema_thalassia Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Avicennia_integra Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Bruguiera_exaristata Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Bruguiera_gymnorhiza Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Bruguiera_parviflora Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Bruguiera_sexangula Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Camptostemon_schultzii Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Ceriops_australis Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Ceriops_pseudodecandra Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Ceriops_tagal Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Cynometra_iripa Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Diospyros_geminata Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Diospyros_littorea Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Excoecaria_agallocha Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Hemichroa_diandra Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Heritiera_littoralis Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Leptochloa_fusca Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Lumnitzera_littorea Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Lumnitzera_racemosa Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Muellerolimon_salicorniaceum Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Nypa_fruticans Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Osbornia_octodonta Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Ottochloa_gracillima Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Parkinsonia_aculeata Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Rhizophora_X_lamarckii Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Rhizophora_apiculata Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Rhizophora_mucronata Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Rhizophora_stylosa Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Samolus_repens Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Sarcocornia_quinqueflora Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Scyphiphora_hydrophylacea Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Sesuvium_portulacastrum Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Sonneratia_alba Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Sonneratia_caseolaris Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Spartina_X_townsendii Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Sporobolus_virginicus Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Suaeda_australis Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Tecticornia_arbuscula Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Tecticornia_halocnemoides Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Tecticornia_pterygosperma Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Xylocarpus_granatum Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Xylocarpus_moluccensis Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Baccharis_halimifolia Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Casuarina_glauca Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Cathormion Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Fimbristylis_ferruginea Vascular_Plants
OccursWith Hibiscus_tiliaceus Vascular_Plants