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Common Names

Grey Mangroves [1]



Name Reference

Avicennia L.

Origin of Name

Named in honour of the famous Arabian physician and scientist, abu-Ali al-Husayn ibn-Sina, known as Avicenna (980-1037) - his Qanun remained the standard medical textbook on plants for 500 years after his death [1].


2 species, one with 3 varieties in Australia. Leaves are pale grey-green on undersurfaces [1].


Avicennia consists of eight species worldwide including: five in the Indo-West Pacific - A. alba, A. integra, A. marina, A. officinalis L. and A. rumphiana Hallier f.; and three others in the Atlantic East Pacific. Avicennia are generally considered pioneers of mangrove forests. They occupy a diversity of habitats within the tidal range and across salinity extremes of tropical and subtropical sheltered areas. In tropical regions, this often includes a select group of co-inhabitors, like Rhizophora. In subtropical and temperate tidal habitats, Avicennia often dominant as trees or shrubs. An unusually cold-tolerant variety grows at latitudes as high as 38° 45' S in southern Australia and New Zealand, making this the most widely distributed of any mangrove genus [1].


Avicennia occur throughout most tropical-subtropical regions of the world. Of the two species found in Australia, A. marina is ubiquitous and widespread while A. integra is rare and restricted to around 16 estuaries in the Northern Territory. The latter species has the distinction of being the only endemic mangrove species in Australia [1].

Key to Avicennia species of Australia

Two Avicennia species are recognised in Australia’s mangroves and occur in most sheltered areas along the mainland coast. They are distinguished by flower size, margins of calyx lobes, style shape, fruit shape, leaf apex shape and bark colour.

1. Corolla width 7-11 mm, calyx entire, style slender, fruit slightly elongate, radicle all hairy, leaf apex rounded Avicennia_integra
1*. Corolla width 3-7 mm, calyx ciliate, style stocky, fruit rounded, radicle collar hairy, leaf apex pointed, size and shape variable Avicennia_marina

-- NormDuke and EmmaClifton - 2011-11-25


  1. Duke, N. (2011). Mangroves of Australia. Manuscript. Vers.: 27 Sept 2011. (more)

All taxa related to Avicennia

Biological Interactions
Relation Taxon GroupSorted ascending
OccursWith Ardea_sumatrana Birds
OccursWith,InhabitedBy Gerygone_levigaster Birds
InhabitedBy Gerygone_tenebrosa Birds
InhabitedBy Myzomela_erythrocephala Birds
OccursWith Pachycephala_lanioides Birds
InhabitedBy Peneonanthe_pulverulenta Birds
InfectedBy Botrytis_argillacea_avicenniae Fungi
InfectedBy Eutypa_bathurstensis Fungi
HasSaprotroph Eutypella_naqsii Fungi
InfectedBy Leptosphaeria_australiensis Fungi
InfectedBy Swampomyces_triseptus Fungi
HasEpiphyte Anisomeridium_albisedum Lichens
HasEpiphyte Cratiria_melanochlora Lichens
HasEpiphyte Dirinaria_picta Lichens
HasEpiphyte Graphis_streimannii Lichens
HasEpiphyte Heterodermia_obscurata Lichens
HasEpiphyte Hypotrachyna_osseoalba Lichens
HasEpiphyte Leptogium_faciifictum Lichens
HasEpiphyte Parmelinopsis_horrescens Lichens
HasEpiphyte Parmotrema_reticulatum Lichens
HasEpiphyte Parmotrema_subtinctorium Lichens
HasEpiphyte Pertusaria_clarkeana Lichens
HasEpiphyte Pertusaria_commutata Lichens
HasEpiphyte Pertusaria_erythrella Lichens
HasEpiphyte Pertusaria_hermaka Lichens
HasEpiphyte Pertusaria_irregularis Lichens
HasEpiphyte Pertusaria_leioplacella Lichens
HasEpiphyte Pertusaria_novaehollandiae Lichens
HasEpiphyte Pertusaria_pertractata Lichens
HasEpiphyte Pertusaria_scaberula Lichens
HasEpiphyte Pertusaria_texana Lichens
HasEpiphyte Pertusaria_velata Lichens
HasEpiphyte Pertusaria_xanthonaria Lichens
HasEpiphyte Physcia_adscendens Lichens
HasEpiphyte Punctelia_subflava Lichens
HasEpiphyte Pyrenula_concatervans Lichens
HasEpiphyte Pyxine_cocoes Lichens
HasEpiphyte Pyxine_retirugella Lichens
HasEpiphyte Ramalina_subfraxinea_nortstictica Lichens
HasEpiphyte Physcia_krogiae [[Mangroves.][]]